World series | Wikipedia audio article


The World Series is the annual championship
series of Major League Baseball (MLB) in North America, contested since 1903 between the
American League (AL) champion team and the National League (NL) champion team. The winner of the World Series championship
is determined through a best-of-seven playoff, and the winning team is awarded the Commissioner’s
Trophy. As the series is played during the fall season
in North America, it is sometimes referred to as the Fall Classic.Prior to 1969, the
team with the best regular season win-loss record in each league automatically advanced
to the World Series; since then each league has conducted a championship series (ALCS
and NLCS) preceding the World Series to determine which teams will advance. As of 2018, the World Series has been contested
114 times, with the AL winning 66 and the NL winning 48. The 2018 World Series took place between the
Los Angeles Dodgers and Boston Red Sox from October 23–28, with the Red Sox winning
in five games to earn their ninth title. This was the first World Series meeting between
these two teams since 1916. Having previously lost to the Houston Astros
in the 2017 World Series, the Dodgers became the 11th team to lose the World Series in
consecutive seasons.In the American League, the New York Yankees have played in 40 World
Series and won 27, the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics have played in 14 and
won 9, and the Boston Red Sox have played in 13 and won 9, including the first World
Series. In the National League, the St. Louis Cardinals
have appeared in 19 and won 11, the New York/San Francisco Giants have played in 19 and won
8, the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers have appeared in 20 and won 6, and the Cincinnati Reds have
appeared in 9 and won 5. As of 2018, no team has won consecutive World
Series championships since the New York Yankees in 1998, 1999, and 2000—the longest such
drought in Major League Baseball history.==Precursors to the modern World Series (1857–1902)
=====The
original World Series===Until the formation of the American Association
in 1882 as a second major league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players
(1871–1875) and then the National League (founded 1876) represented the top level of
organized baseball in the United States. All championships were awarded to the team
with the best record at the end of the season, without a postseason series being played. From 1884 to 1890, the National League and
the American Association faced each other in a series of games at the end of the season
to determine an overall champion. These series were disorganized in comparison
to the modern World Series, with the terms arranged through negotiation of the owners
of the championship teams beforehand. The number of games played ranged from as
few as three in 1884 (Providence defeated New York three games to zero), to a high of
fifteen in 1887 (Detroit beat St. Louis ten games to five). Both the 1885 and 1890 Series ended in ties,
each team having won three games with one tie game.The series was promoted and referred
to as “The Championship of the United States”, “World’s Championship Series”, or “World’s
Series” for short. In his book Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded:
August 27, 1883, Simon Winchester mentions in passing that the World Series was named
for the New York World newspaper, but this view is disputed.The 19th-century competitions
are, however, not officially recognized as part of World Series history by Major League
Baseball, as it considers 19th-century baseball to be a prologue to the modern baseball era. Until about 1960, some sources treated the
19th-century Series on an equal basis with the post-19th-century series. After about 1930, however, many authorities
list the start of the World Series in 1903 and discuss the earlier contests separately. (For example, the 1929 World Almanac and Book
of Facts lists “Baseball World’s Championships 1884–1928” in a single table, but the 1943
edition lists “Baseball World Championships 1903–1942”.)===1892–1900: “The Monopoly Years”===
Following the collapse of the American Association after the 1891 season, the National League
was again the only major league. The league championship was awarded in 1892
by a playoff between half-season champions. This scheme was abandoned after one season. Beginning in 1893—and continuing until divisional
play was introduced in 1969—the pennant was awarded to the first-place club in the
standings at the end of the season. For four seasons, 1894–1897, the league
champions played the runners-up in the post season championship series called the Temple
Cup. A second attempt at this format was the Chronicle-Telegraph
Cup series, which was played only once, in 1900.In 1901, the American League was formed
as a second major league. No championship series were played in 1901
or 1902 as the National and American Leagues fought each other for business supremacy (in
1902, the top teams instead opted to compete in a football championship).==Modern World Series (1903–present)=====First attempt===
After two years of bitter competition and player raiding, the National and American
Leagues made peace and, as part of the accord, several pairs of teams squared off for interleague
exhibition games after the 1903 season. These series were arranged by the participating
clubs, as the 1880s World’s Series matches had been. One of them matched the two pennant winners,
Pittsburgh Pirates of the NL and Boston Americans (later known as the Red Sox) of the AL; that
one is known as the 1903 World Series played at Huntington Avenue Grounds. It had been arranged well in advance by the
two owners, as both teams were league leaders by large margins. Boston upset Pittsburgh by five games to three,
winning with pitching depth behind Cy Young and Bill Dinneen and with the support of the
band of Royal Rooters. The Series brought much civic pride to Boston
and proved the new American League could beat the Nationals.===Boycott of 1904===
The 1904 Series, if it had been held, would have been between the AL’s Boston Americans
(Boston Red Sox) and the NL’s New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants). At that point there was no governing body
for the World Series nor any requirement that a Series be played. Thus the Giants’ owner John T. Brush refused
to allow his team to participate in such an event, citing the “inferiority” of the upstart
American League. John McGraw, the Giants’ manager, even went
so far as to say that his Giants were already “world champions” since they were the champions
of the “only real major league”. At the time of the announcement, their new
cross-town rivals, the New York Highlanders (now the New York Yankees), were leading the
AL, and the prospect of facing the Highlanders did not please Giants management. Boston won on the last day of the season,
and the leagues had previously agreed to hold a World’s Championship Series in 1904, but
it was not binding, and Brush stuck to his original decision. In addition to political reasons, Brush also
factually cited the lack of rules under which money would be split, where games would be
played, and how they would be operated and staffed. During the winter of 1904–1905, however,
feeling the sting of press criticism, Brush had a change of heart and proposed what came
to be known as the “Brush Rules”, under which the series were played subsequently. One rule was that player shares would come
from a portion of the gate receipts for the first four games only. This was to discourage teams from fixing early
games in order to prolong the series and make more money. Receipts for later games would be split among
the two clubs and the National Commission, the governing body for the sport, which was
able to cover much of its annual operating expense from World Series revenue. Most importantly, the now-official and compulsory
World’s Series matches were operated strictly by the National Commission itself, not by
the participating clubs. With the new rules in place and the National
Commission in control, McGraw’s Giants made it to the 1905 Series, and beat the Philadelphia
Athletics four games to one. Since then the Series has been held every
year except 1994, when it was canceled due to a players’ strike. The list of postseason rules evolved over
time. In 1925, Brooklyn owner Charles Ebbets persuaded
others to adopt as a permanent rule the 2–3–2 pattern used in 1924. Prior to 1924, the pattern had been to alternate
by game or to make another arrangement convenient to both clubs. The 2–3–2 pattern has been used ever since
save for the 1943 and 1945 World Series, which followed a 3–4 pattern due to World War
II travel restrictions; in 1944, the normal pattern was followed because both teams were
based in the same home stadium.===1919 Black Sox Scandal===Gambling and game-fixing had been a problem
in professional baseball from the beginning; star pitcher Jim Devlin was banned for life
in 1877, when the National League was just two years old. Baseball’s gambling problems came to a head
in 1919, when eight players of the Chicago White Sox were alleged to have conspired to
throw the 1919 World Series. The Sox had won the Series in 1917 and were
heavy favorites to beat the Cincinnati Reds in 1919, but first baseman Chick Gandil had
other plans. Gandil, in collaboration with gambler Joseph
“Sport” Sullivan, approached his teammates and got six of them to agree to throw the
Series: starting pitchers Eddie Cicotte and Lefty Williams, shortstop Swede Risberg, left
fielder Shoeless Joe Jackson, center fielder Happy Felsch, and utility infielder Fred McMullin. Third baseman Buck Weaver knew of the fix
but declined to participate, hitting .324 for the series from 11 hits and committing
no errors in the field. The Sox, who were promised $100,000 for cooperating,
proceeded to lose the Series in eight games, pitching poorly, hitting poorly and making
many errors. Though he took the money, Jackson insisted
to his death that he played to the best of his ability in the series (he was the best
hitter in the series, including having hit the series’ only home run, but had markedly
worse numbers in the games the White Sox lost). During the Series, writer and humorist Ring
Lardner had facetiously called the event the “World’s Serious”. The Series turned out to indeed have serious
consequences for the sport. After rumors circulated for nearly a year,
the players were suspended in September 1920. The “Black Sox” were acquitted in a criminal
conspiracy trial. However, baseball in the meantime had established
the office of Commissioner in an effort to protect the game’s integrity, and the first
commissioner, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, banned all of the players involved, including Weaver,
for life. The White Sox would not win a World Series
again until 2005. The events of the 1919 Series, segueing into
the “live ball” era, marked a point in time of change of the fortunes of several teams. The two most prolific World Series winners
to date, the New York Yankees and the St. Louis Cardinals, did not win their first championship
until the 1920s; and three of the teams that were highly successful prior to 1920 (the
Boston Red Sox, Chicago White Sox and the Chicago Cubs) went the rest of the 20th century
without another World Series win. The Red Sox and White Sox finally won again
in 2004 and 2005, respectively. The Cubs had to wait over a century (until
the 2016 season) for their next trophy. They did not appear in the Fall Classic from
1945 until 2016, the longest drought of any MLB club.===New York Yankees dynasty (1920–1964)
===The New York Yankees purchased Babe Ruth from
the Boston Red Sox after the 1919 season, appeared in their first World Series two years
later in 1921, and became frequent participants thereafter. Over a period of 45 years from 1920 to 1964,
the Yankees played in 29 World Series championships, winning 20. The team’s dynasty reached its apex between
1947 and 1964, when the Yankees reached the World Series 15 times in eighteen years, helped
by an agreement with the Kansas City Athletics (after that team moved from Philadelphia during
1954–1955 offseason) whereby the teams made several deals advantageous to the Yankees
(until ended by new Athletics’ owner Charles O. Finley). During that span, the Yankees played in all
World Series except 1948, 1954, and 1959, winning ten. From 1949 to 1953, the Yankees won the World
Series five years in a row; from 1936–1939 the Yankees won four World Series Championships
in a row. There are only two other occasions when a
team has won at least three consecutive World Series: 1972 to 1974 by the Oakland Athletics,
and 1998 to 2000 by the New York Yankees.====1947–1964: New York City teams dominate
World Series play====In an 18-year span from 1947 to 1964, except
for 1948 and 1959, the World Series was played in New York City, featuring at least one of
the three teams located in New York at the time. The Dodgers and Giants moved to California
after the 1957 season, leaving the Yankees as the lone team in the city until the Mets
were enfranchised in 1962. During this period, other than 1948, 1954,
and 1959, the Yankees represented the American League in the World Series. In the years 1947, 1949, 1951–1953, and
1955–1956, both teams in the World Series were from New York, with the Yankees playing
against either the Dodgers or Giants.===The World Series in California===
In 1958, the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants took their long-time rivalry to the
west coast, moving to Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively, bringing Major League
Baseball west of St. Louis and Kansas City. The Dodgers were the first of the two clubs
to contest a World Series on the west coast, defeating the Chicago White Sox in 1959. The 1962 Giants made the first California
World Series appearance of that franchise, losing to the Yankees. The Dodgers made three World Series appearances
in the 1960s: a 1963 win over the Yankees, a 1965 win over the Minnesota Twins and a
1966 loss to the Baltimore Orioles. In 1968, the Kansas City Athletics relocated
to Oakland and the following year 1969, the National League granted a franchise to San
Diego as the San Diego Padres. The A’s became a powerful dynasty, winning
three consecutive World Series from 1972–1974. In 1974, the A’s played the Dodgers in the
first all-California World Series. The Padres have two World Series appearances
(a 1984 loss to the Detroit Tigers, and a 1998 loss to the New York Yankees). The Dodgers won two more World Series in the
1980s (1981, 1988). The A’s again went to three straight world
series, from 1988–1990, winning once. 1988 and 1989 were all-California series as
the A’s lost to the Dodgers and beat the Giants, respectively. The Giants have been in four World Series’
in the new millennium, losing in 2002 to the Anaheim Angels (Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim
from 2005 to 2015), and winning in 2010 (Rangers), 2012 (Tigers), and 2014 (Royals).===1969: League Championship Series===
Prior to 1969, the National League and the American League each crowned its champion
(the “pennant winner”) based on the best win-loss record at the end of the regular season. A structured playoff series began in 1969,
when both the National and American Leagues were reorganized into two divisions each,
East and West. The two division winners within each league
played each other in a best-of-five League Championship Series to determine who would
advance to the World Series. In 1985, the format changed to best-of-seven. The National League Championship Series (NLCS)
and American League Championship Series (ALCS), since the expansion to best-of-seven, are
always played in a 2–3–2 format: Games 1, 2, 6 and 7 are played in the stadium of
the team that has home-field advantage, and Games 3, 4 and 5 are played in the stadium
of the team that does not.===1970s=======1971: World Series at night====
MLB night games started being held in 1935 by the Cincinnati Reds, but the World Series
remained a strictly daytime event for years thereafter. In the final game of the 1949 World Series,
a Series game was finished under lights for the first time. The first scheduled night World Series game
was Game 4 of the 1971 World Series at Three Rivers Stadium. Afterward, World Series games were frequently
scheduled at night, when television audiences were larger. Game 6 of the 1987 World Series was the last
World Series game played in the daytime, indoors at the Metrodome in Minnesota. (The last World Series played outdoors during
the day was the final game of the 1984 series in Detroit’s Tiger Stadium.)====1972–1978: Threepeat, repeats, and
Fisk’s home run====During this seven-year period, only three
teams won the World Series: the Oakland Athletics from 1972 to 1974, Cincinnati Reds in 1975
and 1976, and New York Yankees in 1977 and 1978. This is the only time in World Series history
in which three teams have won consecutive series in succession. This period was book-ended by World Championships
for the Pittsburgh Pirates, in 1971 and 1979. However, the Baltimore Orioles made three
consecutive World Series appearances: 1969 (losing to the “amazing” eight-year-old franchise
New York Mets), 1970 (beating the Reds in their first World Series appearance of the
decade), and 1971 (losing to the Pittsburgh Pirates, as well their 1979 appearance, when
they again lost to the Pirates), and the Los Angeles Dodgers’ back-to-back World Series
appearances in 1977 and 1978 (both losses to the New York Yankees), as well in 1974
losing against the cross-state rival Oakland Athletics. Game 6 of the 1975 World Series is regarded
by most as one of the greatest World Series games ever played. It found the Boston Red Sox winning in the
12th inning in Fenway Park, defeating the Cincinnati Reds to force a seventh and deciding
game. The game is best remembered for its exciting
lead changes, nail-biting turns of events, and a game-winning walk-off home run by Carlton
Fisk, resulting in a 7–6 Red Sox victory.====1976: The designated hitter comes to
the World Series====The National and American Leagues operated
under essentially identical rules until 1973, when the American League adopted the designated
hitter (DH) rule, allowing its teams to use another hitter to bat in place of the (usually)
weak-hitting pitcher. The National League did not adopt the DH rule. This presented a problem for the World Series,
whose two contestants would now be playing their regular-season games under different
rules. From 1973 to 1975, the World Series did not
include a DH. Starting in 1976, the World Series allowed
for the use of a DH in even-numbered years only. (The Cincinnati Reds swept the 1976 Series
in four games, using the same nine-man lineup in each contest. Dan Driessen was the Reds’ DH during the series,
thereby becoming the National League’s first designated hitter.) Finally, in 1986, baseball adopted the current
rule in which the DH is used for World Series games played in the AL champion’s park but
not the NL champion’s. Thus, the DH rule’s use or non-use can not
affect the performance of the home team.===1980s=======1984: Anderson becomes first to win in
both leagues====The 1984 Detroit Tigers gained distinction
as just the third team in major league history (after the 1927 New York Yankees and 1955
Brooklyn Dodgers) to lead a season wire-to-wire, from opening day through their World Series
victory. In the process, Tigers skipper Sparky Anderson
became the first manager to win a World Series title in both leagues, having previously won
in 1975 and 1976 with the Cincinnati Reds. 1987: Twins First World Series Champion to
Win Every Home Game The 1987 Minnesota Twins became the 1st team
in the history of the World Series to win the championship by winning all 4 games they
hosted when they defeated the St. Louis Cardinals. They repeated this 4 years later in 1991 when
they defeated the Atlanta Braves.====1988: Kirk Gibson’s home run====
The 1988 World Series is remembered for the iconic home run by the Los Angeles Dodgers’
Kirk Gibson with two outs in the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 1. The Dodgers were huge underdogs against the
104-win Oakland Athletics, who had swept the Boston Red Sox in the ALCS. Baseball’s top relief pitcher, Dennis Eckersley,
closed out all four games in the ALCS, and he appeared ready to do the same in Game 1
against a Dodgers team trailing 4–3 in the ninth. After getting the first two outs, Eckersley
walked Mike Davis of the Dodgers, who were playing without Gibson, their best position
player and the NL MVP. Gibson had injured himself in the NLCS and
was expected to miss the entire World Series. Yet, despite not being able to walk without
a noticeable limp, Gibson surprised all in attendance at Dodger Stadium (and all watching
on TV) by pinch-hitting. After two quick strikes and then working the
count full, Gibson hit a home run to right, inspiring iconic pronouncements by two legendary
broadcasters calling the game, Vin Scully (on TV) and Jack Buck (on radio). On NBC, as Gibson limped around the bases,
Scully famously exclaimed, “The impossible has happened!” and on radio, Buck equally
famously exclaimed, “I don’t believe what I just saw!” Gibson’s home run set the tone for the series,
as the Dodgers went on to beat the A’s 4 games to 1. The severity of Gibson’s injury prevented
him from playing in any of the remaining games.====1989: Earthquake====
When the 1989 World Series began, it was notable chiefly for being the first ever World Series
matchup between the two San Francisco Bay Area teams, the San Francisco Giants and Oakland
Athletics. Oakland won the first two games at home, and
the two teams crossed the bridge to San Francisco to play Game 3 on Tuesday, October 17. ABC’s broadcast of Game 3 began at 5 pm local
time, approximately 30 minutes before the first pitch was scheduled. At 5:04, while broadcasters Al Michaels and
Tim McCarver were narrating highlights and the teams were warming up, the Loma Prieta
earthquake occurred (having a surface-wave magnitude of 7.1 with an epicenter ten miles
(16 km) northeast of Santa Cruz, California). The earthquake caused substantial property
and economic damage in the Bay Area and killed 63 people. Television viewers saw the video signal deteriorate
and heard Michaels say “I’ll tell you what, we’re having an earth–” before the feed from
Candlestick Park was lost. Fans filing into the stadium saw Candlestick
sway visibly during the quake. Television coverage later resumed, using backup
generators, with Michaels becoming a news reporter on the unfolding disaster. Approximately 30 minutes after the earthquake,
Commissioner Fay Vincent ordered the game to be postponed. Fans, workers, and the teams evacuated a blacked
out (although still sunlit) Candlestick. Game 3 was finally played on October 27, and
Oakland won that day and the next to complete a four-game sweep.===1990s=======1992–1993: The World Series enters
Canada====World Series games were contested outside
of the United States for the first time in 1992, with the Toronto Blue Jays defeating
the Atlanta Braves in six games. The World Series returned to Canada in 1993,
with the Blue Jays victorious again, this time against the Philadelphia Phillies in
six games. No other Series has featured a team from outside
of the United States. Toronto is the only expansion team to win
successive World Series titles. The 1993 World Series was also notable for
being only the second championship concluded by a walk-off home run and the first concluded
by a come-from-behind homer, after Joe Carter’s three-run shot in the bottom of the ninth
inning sealed an 8–6 Toronto win in Game 6. The first Series to end with a homer was the
1960 World Series, when Bill Mazeroski hit a ninth-inning solo shot in Game 7 to win
the championship for the Pittsburgh Pirates.====1994: League Division Series====
In 1994, each league was restructured into three divisions, with the three division winners
and the newly introduced wild card winner advancing to a best-of-five playoff round
(the “division series”), the National League Division Series (NLDS) and American League
Division Series (ALDS). The team with the best league record is matched
against the wild card team, unless they are in the same division, in which case, the team
with the second-best record plays against the wild card winner. The remaining two division winners are pitted
against each other. The winners of the series in the first round
advance to the best-of-seven NLCS and ALCS. Due to a players’ strike, however, the NLDS
and ALDS were not played until 1995. Beginning in 1998, home field advantage was
given to the team with the better regular season record, with the exception that the
Wild Card team cannot get home-field advantage.====1994–1995 strike====After the boycott of 1904, the World Series
was played every year until 1994 despite World War I, the global influenza pandemic of 1918–1919,
the Great Depression of the 1930s, America’s involvement in World War II, and even an earthquake
in the host cities of the 1989 World Series. A breakdown in collective bargaining led to
a strike in August 1994 and the eventual cancellation of the rest of the season, including the playoffs. As the labor talks began, baseball franchise
owners demanded a salary cap in order to limit payrolls, the elimination of salary arbitration,
and the right to retain free agent players by matching a competitor’s best offer. The Major League Baseball Players Association
(MLBPA) refused to agree to limit payrolls, noting that the responsibility for high payrolls
lay with those owners who were voluntarily offering contracts. One difficulty in reaching a settlement was
the absence of a commissioner. When Fay Vincent was forced to resign in 1992,
owners did not replace him, electing instead to make Milwaukee Brewers owner Bud Selig
acting commissioner. Thus, baseball headed into the 1994 work stoppage
without a full-time commissioner for the first time since the office was founded in 1920.The
previous collective bargaining agreement expired on December 31, 1993, and baseball began the
1994 season without a new agreement. Owners and players negotiated as the season
progressed, but owners refused to give up the idea of a salary cap and players refused
to accept one. On August 12, 1994, the players went on strike. After a month passed with no progress in the
labor talks, Selig canceled the rest of the 1994 season and the postseason on September
14. The World Series was not played for the first
time in 90 years. The Montreal Expos, now the Washington Nationals,
were the best team in baseball at the time of the stoppage, with a record of 74–40
(since their founding in 1969, the Expos/Nationals have never played in a World Series.) The labor dispute lasted into the spring of
1995, with owners beginning spring training with replacement players. However, the MLBPA returned to work on April
2, 1995 after a federal judge, future U.S. Supreme Court justice Sonia Sotomayor, ruled
that the owners had engaged in unfair labor practices. The season started on April 25 and the 1995
World Series was played as scheduled, with Atlanta beating Cleveland four games to two.===2000s===
The 2001 World Series was the first World Series to end in November, due to the week-long
delay in the regular season after the September 11 attacks. Game 4 had begun on Oct. 31 but went into
extra innings and ended early on the morning of Nov. 1, the first time the Series had been
played in November. Yankee shortstop Derek Jeter won the game
with a 12th inning walk-off home run and was dubbed “Mr. November” by elements of the media
echoing the media’s designation of Reggie Jackson as “Mr. October” for his slugging
achievements during the 1977 World Series. The Boston Red Sox broke their 86-year drought,
known as the Curse of the Bambino, defeating the Yankees in the 2004 ALCS after losing
the first three games, and then defeating the St. Louis Cardinals in the 2004 World
Series. With the 2006 World Series victory by the
St. Louis Cardinals, Tony La Russa became the second manager to a win a World Series
in both the American and National Leagues.====All-Star Game and home-field advantage
(2003–2016)====Prior to 2003, home-field advantage in the
World Series alternated from year to year between the NL and AL. After the 2002 Major League Baseball All-Star
Game ended in a tie, MLB decided to award home-field advantage in the World Series to
the winner of the All-Star Game. Originally implemented as a two-year trial
from 2003 to 2004, the practice was extended. The American League had won every All-Star
Game since this change until 2010 and thus enjoyed home-field advantage from 2002, when
it also had home-field advantage based on the alternating schedule, through 2009. From 2003 to 2010, the AL and NL had each
won the World Series four times, but none of them had gone the full seven games. Since then, the 2011, 2014, 2016, and 2017
World Series have gone the full seven games. This rule was subject to debate, with various
writers feeling that home-field advantage should be decided based on the regular season
records of the participants, not on an exhibition game played several months earlier. Some writers especially questioned the integrity
of this rule after the 2014 All-Star Game, when St. Louis Cardinals pitcher Adam Wainwright
suggested that he intentionally gave Derek Jeter some easy pitches to hit in the New
York Yankees’ shortstop’s final All-Star appearance before he retired at the end of that season.As
Bob Ryan of The Boston Globe wrote in July 2015 about the rule: So now we have a game that’s not real baseball
determining which league hosts Games 1, 2, 6, and 7 in the World Series. It’s not a game if pitchers throw one inning. It’s not a game if managers try to get everyone
on a bloated roster into the game. It’s not a game if every franchise, no matter
how wretched, has to put a player on the team … If the game is going to count, tell the
managers to channel their inner Connie Mack and go for it. However, within the last seven seasons, home-field
advantage, in terms of deciding World Series games, has not necessarily worked for teams
of said games. Since 2014, the home team has not won the
deciding game of a World Series.===2010s===
The San Francisco Giants won the World Series in 2010, 2012, and 2014 while failing to qualify
to play in the postseason in the intervening seasons. The Texas Rangers were twice only one strike
away from winning their first World Series title in 2011, but the St. Louis Cardinals’
David Freese, the eventual Series MVP, drove in both the tying and winning runs late in
Game 6 to force a Game 7. In 2013, the Boston Red Sox won their third
world series of the 2000s, this time at Fenway Park for the first time since 1918. The Kansas City Royals reached the World Series
in 2014, which was their first appearance in the postseason since winning the series
in 1985. At the time, it was the longest postseason
drought in baseball. They lost in seven games to the Giants. The following season, the Royals finished
with the American League’s best record, and won a second consecutive American League pennant. They defeated the New York Mets in the World
Series 4–1, capturing their first title in 30 years. The 2015 contest was the first time that two
expansion clubs met for the Fall Classic. In 2016, the Chicago Cubs ended their 108-year
long drought without a World Series title by defeating the Cleveland Indians, rallying
from a 3–1 Series deficit in the process. That extended Cleveland’s
World Series title drought to 68 years and counting – the Indians last won the Series
in 1948 – now the longest title drought in the majors. Beginning in 2017, home field advantage in
the World Series is awarded to the league champion team with the better regular season
win-loss record. If both league champions have the same record,
the second tie-breaker would be head-to-head record, and if that does not resolve it, the
third tie-breaker would be best divisional record. The Houston Astros won the 2017 World Series
in 7 games against the Los Angeles Dodgers on November 1, 2017, winning their first World
Series since their creation in 1962. The Boston Red Sox won the 2018 World Series,
beating the Los Angeles Dodgers in 5 games for their fourth title since 2004.==Modern World Series appearances by franchise
=====
World Series record by team or franchise, 1903–2018===NotesAmerican League (AL) teams have won 66
of the 114 World Series played (57.9%). The New York Yankees have won 27 titles, accounting
for 23.7% of all series played and 40.9% of the wins by American League teams. The St. Louis Cardinals have won 11 World
Series, accounting for 9.6% of all series played and 23% of the 48 National League victories. When the first modern World Series was played
in 1903, there were eight teams in each league. These 16 franchises, all of which are still
in existence, have each won at least two World Series titles. The number of teams was unchanged until 1961,
with fourteen expansion teams joining MLB since then. Twelve have played in a World Series (the
Mariners and Expos/Nationals being the two exceptions). The expansion teams have won ten of the 22
Series (45%) in which they have played, which is 9% of all 114 series played since 1903. In 2015, the first World Series featuring
only expansion teams was played between the Kansas City Royals and New York Mets.===Team patterns in the World Series===
This information is up to date through the present time:====Streaks and droughts====Since their first championship in 1923, the
New York Yankees have won two or more World Series titles in every decade except the 1980s,
when they won none, and now the 2010s, where only one chance remains for them to win one
this decade. Additionally, they have won at least one American
League pennant in every decade since the 1920s. (They have yet to win a pennant or Series
in the 2010s.) The Yankees are the only team in either League
to win more than three series in a row, winning in four consecutive seasons from 1936–1939,
and an MLB record five consecutive seasons from 1949–1953. The Yankees also won three consecutive World
Series from 1998–2000. The only team other than the Yankees to win
three consecutive World Series is the Oakland Athletics, who won three straight Series from
1972–1974. The New York Giants’ four World Series appearances
from 1921–1924 are the most consecutive appearances for any National League franchise. The Yankees are the only American League franchise
to appear in four or more consecutive World Series, doing so from 1936–1939, 1949–1953,
1955–1958, 1960–1964, and 1998–2001. The 1907–1908 Cubs, 1921–1922 Giants and
the 1975–1976 Reds are the only National League teams to win back-to-back World Series. No National League team has ever won three
consecutive World Series. The 1907–1909 Detroit Tigers and the 1911–1913
New York Giants are the only teams to lose three consecutive World Series. The Chicago Cubs hold the record for the longest
World Series championship drought of all time, with no titles between 1908 and 2016 (108
years). They also hold the longest ever pennant drought
of all time, which stretched from 1945 to 2016. Their pennant drought ended with a 4–2 series
victory over the Los Angeles Dodgers in the 2016 NLCS. With the Cubs’ subsequent victory in the 2016
World Series, the longest active World Series championship drought belongs coincidentally
to their opponents in that series, the Cleveland Indians, who have not won a World Series since
1948. The Indians’ drought is the second longest
active championship drought among all four major professional sports leagues in North
America (MLB, NBA, NFL, and NHL); only the NFL’s Arizona Cardinals, who last won a league
championship in 1947, when the team still operated as the Chicago Cardinals, have a
longer active championship drought. The team with the longest active pennant drought
among AL teams that have played in a World Series at least once is the Baltimore Orioles,
who have not reached a World Series since winning their last title in 1983. The team with the longest active pennant drought
among NL teams that have played in a World Series at least once is the Pittsburgh Pirates,
who have not reached a World Series since winning their last title in 1979. This also means that the Pirates hold the
second longest active World Series title drought among all teams that have at least one Series
and longest championship drought among NL teams that have won a Series. Twenty-three of the 28 teams to play in the
World Series have won it at least once. The only exceptions are: Milwaukee Brewers
(formerly Seattle Pilots), San Diego Padres, Colorado Rockies, Tampa Bay Rays (formerly
Devil Rays), and Texas Rangers (formerly Washington Senators). The Padres and Rangers have both lost two
World Series; the remaining teams have all one Series. As of 2019, all teams with three or more World
Series appearances have won the World Series at least once. Two teams have never played in the World Series:
the National League’s Washington Nationals (formerly Montreal Expos), and the American
League’s Seattle Mariners. Both franchises have competed in a League
Championship Series at least once. The Boston Red Sox have the most World Series
titles before their first World Series loss, winning the championship in their first five
appearances—1903, 1912, 1915, 1916, and 1918—before losing in the next series they
played, in 1946. The American League’s Toronto Blue Jays (1992
and 1993) and National League’s Miami Marlins (1997 and 2003 as the Florida Marlins) hold
the record for most appearances in a Series without ever losing a Series. Two other franchises have won their lone appearance:
the National League’s Arizona Diamondbacks (2001) and American League’s Los Angeles Angels
(2002 as the Anaheim Angels). The Boston Red Sox have the longest active
streak of World Series victories (four) since the last time they lost a series. They have won titles in 2004, 2007, 2013 and
2018 after their last loss in 1986. The Yankees have the most World Series victories
(eight) between World Series losses. After losing the 1926 World Series to the
Cardinals, the Yankees won their next eight appearances in the series (1927, 1928, 1932,
1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, and 1941) before losing in 1942 to the Cardinals again. The Cardinals are the National League leader
in this category, with four titles (1944, 1946, 1964, and 1967) between series losses
in 1943 and 1968. The Cubs and Dodgers are tied at seven apiece
for most World Series losses between World Series victories. The Dodgers lost their first seven appearances
in the Fall Classics (1916, 1920, 1941, 1947, 1949, 1952, and 1953) before winning their
first title in 1955. The Cubs’ situation was the opposite: between
winning their last two titles (in 1908 and 2016), they lost the World Series in 1910,
1918, 1929, 1932, 1935, 1938, and 1945. The Cleveland Indians have four World Series
losses (1954, 1995, 1997, and 2016) since their last crown in 1948, more than any other
team in the American League. The longest duration without repeat World
Series champions is eighteen years, dating back to the 2000 New York Yankees. The previous record of fourteen years (in
between the 1978 New York Yankees’ win and the 1993 Toronto Blue Jays’ win) was broken
when the San Francisco Giants did not qualify for the postseason in 2015 following their
victory in the 2014 World Series. The longest sequence of World Series in which
each Series was won by a different franchise is 10, from 1978 (Yankees) through 1987 (Minnesota
Twins). This streak was broken when the Dodgers, which
had won in 1981, won in 1988.====Game-by-game====
Game 7 was won by the home team in the 9 World Series between 1980 and 2013 that went to
seven games (the 1982 St. Louis Cardinals, 1985 Kansas City Royals, 1986 New York Mets,
1987 and 1991 Minnesota Twins, 1997 Florida Marlins, 2001 Arizona Diamondbacks, 2002 Anaheim
Angels, and 2011 St. Louis Cardinals) before the Giants won game 7 on the road in 2014. This trend reverses the previous historical
trend in which Game 7 had been most often won by the road team, in 1979, 1975, 1972,
1971, 1968, 1967, 1965, and 1962. During the 1960s and 1970s, the home team
had won Game 7 only in 1960, 1964, and 1973. To date, only six teams have come back to
win a World Series when facing elimination going into Game 5 of a best-of-seven contest:
the 1925 Pittsburgh Pirates, who defeated the reigning champion Washington Senators;
the 1958 New York Yankees, who defeated the reigning champion Milwaukee Braves in a re-match
of the 1957 World Series; the 1968 Detroit Tigers, who defeated the St. Louis Cardinals;
the 1979 Pittsburgh Pirates, who defeated the Baltimore Orioles; the 1985 Kansas City
Royals, who defeated the St. Louis Cardinals; and the 2016 Chicago Cubs, who defeated the
Cleveland Indians. Only the Pittsburgh Pirates have accomplished
the feat twice; they were the first MLB and NL team to accomplish the feat. By contrast, only the St. Louis Cardinals
have twice suffered defeat in the World Series when holding a commanding 3-games-to-1 lead. The New York Yankees were the first AL team
to accomplish the feat. The 1958 Yankees, the 1968 Tigers, the 1979
Pirates, and the 2016 Cubs all accomplished the feat by winning Games 6 & 7 on the road. The 1981 Los Angeles Dodgers are the most
recent team to win a World Series after losing the first two games on the road (against New
York). The recent tendency of a team winning the
first two games at home and then winning the Series suggests the theoretical advantage
to gaining home-field advantage (and the first two games at home). The Pittsburgh Pirates won all five of their
World Series championships in seven games. The Minnesota Twins/Washington Senators won
all three of their World Series championships in seven games. There have been 19 World Series four-game
(4–0) sweeps, the most recent of which occurred in 2012. Nine teams have swept a World Series at least
once, the Yankees having done so most often (8 times). The Red Sox, Reds, and Giants have all done
it twice. The Braves, Orioles, White Sox, Dodgers, and
Athletics have each swept one Series. Six of these teams (all but the Orioles, Red
Sox and White Sox) have also been swept 0–4 in at least one World Series. The Red Sox’ two World Series sweeps are the
most of any team that has never been swept in one. The Reds and Yankees are the only teams to
have swept each other (the Yankees swept the Reds in 1939, while the Reds swept the Yankees
in 1976). The Giants are the only team to record World
Series sweeps in two cities: New York (1954) and San Francisco (2012). The 1999 Yankees are the last team to date,
and the only one since 1966, to sweep a World Series it began on the road (as well as the
last American League champion to win a World Series it began on the road until the 2017
season when the Astros defeated the Dodgers in 7 games). The 1963 Dodgers are the last National League
team to date to sweep a World Series it began on the road. The Athletics, Cardinals, Cubs, and Yankees
are the only teams to be swept in two World Series. The Athletics and Yankees are the only two
of these with at least one World Series sweep to their credit, the other two being among
nine teams overall that have never swept a World Series, but have been swept in one (the
Tigers, Astros, Indians, Padres, Phillies, Pirates, and Rockies being the others). The Cubs in 1907 and the Giants in 1922 won
4 games to 0, but each of those Series’ included a tied game and are not considered to be true
sweeps. In 1907, the first game was the tie and the
Cubs won four straight after that. In 1922, Game 2 was the tie. The Cincinnati Reds were the only National
League team to sweep any World Series between 1963 and 2012, sweeping their last two series
appearances to date in 1976 and 1990. When added to their Game 7 victory in 1975,
this means that the Reds have won their last 9 consecutive World Series games, making this
the current longest winning streak in terms of consecutive World Series games won. The Reds are also to date the only team since
the inception of the League Championship Series (LCS) in 1969 to sweep the entire postseason. The 1976 “Big Red Machine” swept the Philadelphia
Phillies in the National League LCS in three games, and then swept the New York Yankees
in the World Series in four games. The longest ever streak of consecutive World
Series games won is 14 by the New York Yankees, who won four straight games to win the 1996
World Series after losing the first two games of that series, then swept their next two
World Series appearances in 1998 and 1999, and then won the first two games of the 2000
World Series before losing the third game of that Series to the New York Mets. The only team to have appeared in a World
Series and have no wins in a World Series game is the Colorado Rockies, who were swept
in their only appearance to date in 2007. Nine World Series have ended with “walk-off”
hits, i.e., that game and the Series ended when the home team won with a base hit in
the bottom of the ninth or in extra innings: 1924*, 1929, 1935, 1953, 1960*, 1991*, 1993,
1997*, and 2001*. Five of these (marked with a *) were in a
deciding Game 7. In addition, the deciding Game 8 (one game
had ended in a tie) of the 1912 World Series ended in a walk-off sacrifice fly. Two men have ended a World Series with a walk-off
home run: Bill Mazeroski in 1960 and Joe Carter in 1993. Mazeroski’s was a solo shot in the bottom
of the ninth of Game 7 to win a championship for the Pittsburgh Pirates, while Carter’s
was a three-run shot in Game 6 that won a championship for the Toronto Blue Jays. There has been one World Series that ended
on a runner caught stealing, on a play that involved three future Hall of Famers. In the bottom of the ninth inning of Game
7 of the 1926 World Series, Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees tried to steal second base
with two outs and his team trailing the St. Louis Cardinals 3–2. Ruth was thrown out by Cardinals catcher Bob
O’Farrell after Bob Meusel swung at and missed a pitch from Grover Cleveland Alexander. St. Louis second baseman Rogers Hornsby applied
the tag on Ruth, who in his career was successful on 51% of his stolen base attempts. Ruth, Alexander and Hornsby were inducted
into the Baseball Hall of Fame. One World Series game has ended with a pick-off
of a runner. Kolten Wong of the St. Louis Cardinals was
picked off first base in Game 4 of the 2013 World Series by Boston Red Sox closer Koji
Uehara. The score was 4–2 and rookie Wong was a
pinch runner. The Philadelphia Phillies and the Tampa Bay
Rays are the first teams to have an elimination game (or any game) be suspended because of
weather, and not have it cancelled. Game 5 (in Philadelphia) was suspended on
Monday, October 27, 2008 with a 2–2 score, and resumed in the bottom of the sixth on
Wednesday, October 29. The Phillies went on to win the game and clinch
the series. Both of the Minnesota Twins’ World Series
titles since relocating to the Twin Cities from Washington, D.C. (where they were the
first Washington Senators) were in 7 game series where all games were won by the home
team. The Twins accomplished this in 1987, when
the Twins defeated the St. Louis Cardinals, then 4 years later in 1991, when the Twins
defeated the Atlanta Braves. The Twins victories in both series were in
games 1, 2, 6, and 7, while their National League opponents won games 3, 4, and 5. This same scenario also occurred in 2001,
when the Arizona Diamondbacks defeated the New York Yankees. In the three series where every game was won
by the home team, a pitcher was named World Series Most Valuable Player (MVP). In the 1987 World Series, Frank Viola was
the MVP having pitched games 1, 4, and 7, and finishing with a 2–1 record. In 1991, Jack Morris achieved the same feat
pitching games 1, 4, and 7 with a 2–0 record and a no decision in game 4, and winning MVP
honors. However, Morris’s MVP came on the heels of
pitching 10 shutout innings in game 7. Finally, in 2001, Curt Schilling and Randy
Johnson took MVP honors by being the reason the Arizona Diamondbacks were in position
to win the series. There has only been one instance in World
Series history where the Series MVP was selected from the losing team: Bobby Richardson of
the 1960 New York Yankees. The Boston Red Sox have lost 4 World Series,
all in 7 games. (1946, 1967, 1975, & 1986)
Four World Series ended with teams clinching the championship in the final game of the
series which was not a game 7 and went into extra innings. The title was won this way in 1939, 1992,
2012, and 2015, with the road team winning each time. The home team has not won a deciding game
of a World Series since 2013, and has not done so in six of the last seven seasons. The winning team has scored fewer runs (composite)
on 22 occasions, six of these in six-game series: 1918, 1959, 1977, 1992, 1996, and
2003. Seven-game series winners were outscored in
1912, 1924, 1925, 1931, 1940, 1957, 1960, 1962, 1964, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1991,
1997, and 2002. An equal number of runs were scored by the
teams in 1948 (6 games), 2016, and 2017. A five-game series winner has yet to be outscored:
the closest margins were two runs in 1915 and three in 2000. The closest composite margin in a four-game
sweep is six runs (1950, 2005).====Local rivalries====When two teams share the same state or metropolitan
area, fans often develop strong loyalties to one and antipathies towards the other,
sometimes building on already-existing rivalries between cities or neighborhoods. Before the introduction of interleague play
in 1997, the only opportunity for two teams playing in the same area but in different
leagues to face each other in official competition would have been in a World Series.=====Cross-town Series=====
The first city to host an entire World Series was Chicago in 1906. The Chicago White Sox were known as “the Hitless
Wonders” that year, with the worst team batting average in the American League. The Chicago Cubs had a winning percentage
of .763, a record that still stands. But in an upset, the White Sox beat the Cubs
four games to two.Fourteen “Subway Series” have been played entirely within New York
City, all including the American League’s New York Yankees. Thirteen of them matched the Yankees with
either the New York Giants or the Brooklyn Dodgers of the National League. The initial instances occurred in 1921 and
1922, when the Giants beat the Yankees in consecutive World Series that were not technically
“subway series” since the teams shared the Polo Grounds as their home ballpark. The Yankees finally beat the Giants the following
year, their first in their brand-new Yankee Stadium, and won the two teams’ three subsequent
Fall Classic match-ups in 1936, 1937 and 1951. The Yankees faced Brooklyn seven times in
October, winning their first five meetings in 1941, 1947, 1949, 1952 and 1953, before
losing to the Dodgers in 1955, Brooklyn’s sole World Championship. The last Subway Series involving the original
New York ballclubs came in 1956, when the Yankees again beat the Dodgers. The trio was separated in 1958 when the Dodgers
and Giants moved to California (although the Yankees subsequently met and beat the now-San
Francisco Giants in 1962, and played the now-Los Angeles Dodgers four times, losing to them
in a four-game sweep in 1963, beating them back-to-back in 1977 and 1978 and losing to
them in 1981). An all-New York Series did not recur until
2000, when the Yankees defeated the New York Mets in five games. The last World Series played entirely in one
ballpark was the 1944 “Streetcar Series” between the St. Louis Cardinals and the St. Louis
Browns. The Cardinals won in six games, all held in
their shared home, Sportsman’s Park. The 1989 World Series, sometimes called the
“Bay Bridge Series” or the “BART Series” (after the connecting transit line), featured the
Oakland Athletics and the San Francisco Giants, teams that play just across San Francisco
Bay from each other. The series is most remembered for the major
earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area just before game 3 was scheduled to begin. The quake caused significant damage to both
communities and severed the Bay Bridge that connects them, forcing the postponement of
the series. Play resumed ten days later, and the A’s swept
the Giants in four games. (The earthquake disruption of the Series almost
completely overshadowed the fact that the 1989 Series represented a resumption after
many decades of the October rivalry between the Giants and the A’s dating back to the
early years of the 20th Century, when the then-New York Giants had defeated the then-Philadelphia
Athletics in 1905, and had lost to them in 1911 and again in 1913.) The Giants are the only team to have played
in cross-town World Series in two cities, having faced the Yankees six times while located
in New York, and the Athletics once while based in San Francisco. Two cross-town World Series match-ups were
formerly possible but did not occur — the Boston Red Sox vs. the Boston Braves, and
the Philadelphia Phillies vs. the Philadelphia Athletics. (The Braves moved to Milwaukee in 1953, and
the Athletics moved to Kansas City in 1955.) Currently there are four metropolitan areas
that have two Major League Baseball teams — New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and
Los Angeles. Of the four, only Los Angeles has not hosted
a cross-town World Series. Such a contest would pit the Dodgers against
the Angels. Below is a chronological list of World Series
played between teams from the same metropolitan area, with the winning teams listed in boldface.====Cross-state rivalries====
The historic rivalry between Northern and Southern California added to the interest
in the Oakland Athletics-Los Angeles Dodgers series in 1974 and 1988 and in the San Francisco
Giants’ series against the then-Anaheim Angels in 2002. Other than the St. Louis World Series of 1944,
the only postseason tournament held entirely within Missouri was the I-70 Series in 1985
(named for the Interstate Highway connecting the two cities) between the St. Louis Cardinals
and the Kansas City Royals, who won at home in the seventh game. Going into the 2017 season, there has never
been an in-state World Series between the teams in Ohio (Cleveland Indians and Cincinnati
Reds), Florida (Tampa Bay Rays and Miami Marlins), Texas (Texas Rangers and Houston Astros – who
now both play in the American League since the Astros changed leagues in 2013, making
any future joint World Series appearance an impossibility unless one of the teams switches
leagues), or Pennsylvania (the Philadelphia Phillies and the Pittsburgh Pirates have been
traditional National League rivals going back to the late 19th Century). Neither the Phillies nor the Pirates ever
faced the Athletics in October during the latter team’s tenure in Philadelphia, through
1954. The Boston Red Sox never similarly faced the
Braves while the latter team played in Boston through 1952. There also was never an all-Canada World Series
between the Toronto Blue Jays and the former Montreal Expos, who never won a National League
pennant when they played in that Canadian city from 1969 through 2004. The Expos became the Washington Nationals
in 2005 – raising the possibility of a potential future “I-95 World Series” between the National
League team and the AL’s Baltimore Orioles, who play just 50 miles to the north of Washington. Finally, the Los Angeles and/or Anaheim Angels
have never faced off in October against either the Dodgers or against the San Diego Padres
for bragging rights in Southern California, although all three of those teams have appeared
in the World Series at various times.====Pennants won in different cities====
The Braves are the only team to have both won and lost a World Series in three home
cities (Boston, Milwaukee, and Atlanta). The Athletics have had three home cities (Philadelphia,
Kansas City, and Oakland), but have appeared in the World Series (both winning and losing)
while based in only two of them (Philadelphia and Oakland). Three other teams have both won and lost the
Fall Classic in two home cities: The Dodgers (Brooklyn and Los Angeles), the Giants (New
York and San Francisco), and the Twins (the Twin Cities and Washington, D.C., as the first
Senators). The Orioles are the only other team to have
played in the World Series in two home cities (Baltimore and St. Louis, as the Browns),
but all three of their titles (and three of their four losses) have come while based in
Baltimore.====The original sixteen teams====
At the time the first modern World Series began in 1903, each league had eight clubs,
all of which survive today (although sometimes in a different city or with a new nickname),
comprising the “original sixteen”. Every original team has won at least two World
Series titles. The Philadelphia Phillies (National League)
were the last of the original teams to win their first Series, in 1980. They were also the last to win at least two,
with their second Series victory in 2008. The Cubs were the first team to win the series
twice, in 1907 and 1908. The last original American League team to
win its first World Series was the Baltimore Orioles (former St. Louis Browns, originally
the Milwaukee Brewers), winning in 1966. The Orioles were also the last original team
in the majors to make their first World Series appearance, as the St. Louis Browns in 1944. Although they never won another American League
pennant while in St. Louis, they have won three World Series in six appearances since
moving to Baltimore. The St. Louis Cardinals were the last original
National League team to appear in or win a modern World Series, doing both in 1926. They have subsequently won more World Series
than any other National League club: 11 championships through 2017. The New York Yankees have defeated all eight
original NL teams in a World Series. Conversely, they have lost at least one World
Series to six of the original NL teams, never losing to the Chicago Cubs or the Philadelphia
Phillies. The Boston Red Sox have played at least one
Series against every original National League team except the (Boston, Milwaukee and Atlanta)
Braves, with whom they shared a home city through 1952. The St. Louis Cardinals are currently the
only club of the National League’s original eight that holds an overall Series lead over
the Yankees, 3 to 2, taking that lead in 1964. The Giants won their first two Series over
the Yankees (1921 and 1922), but the Yankees have faced the Giants five times since then
and have won all five, taking the overall lead over the Giants in 1937. The Pittsburgh Pirates and Yankees have faced
each other twice (1927 and 1960), with the Yankees winning in 1927 and the Pirates winning
in 1960, making the two teams .500 against each other. Since the two leagues expanded beyond eight
teams apiece in 1961, the American League’s Cleveland Indians are the only original team
that has not won a World Series against the larger field of competitors. The 2015 World Series was the first ever,
and to date only, World Series to not feature any of the original sixteen teams.====Expansion teams (after 1960)====
The 2001 Arizona Diamondbacks won their first pennant and World Series in fewer seasons
than any other expansion team (both attained in their 4th season). The 1997 World Series Champion Florida Marlins
achieved these milestones in the second-fewest number of seasons (fifth season). The fastest AL expansion franchise to win
a pennant was the Tampa Bay Rays in 2008 (11th season) and the fastest AL expansion franchise
to win a World Series was the Toronto Blue Jays in 1992 (16th season). While the New York Mets (NL) were the first
expansion team to win or appear in the World Series (doing both in 1969), the American
League would have to wait until 1980 for its first expansion-team World Series appearance,
and until 1985 for its first expansion-team win. Both were by the Kansas City Royals. The AL also had two expansion teams appear
in the World Series (the Milwaukee Brewers being the second, in 1982) before the National
League’s second expansion team to appear—the San Diego Padres in 1984. With the New York Mets defeating the Chicago
Cubs in a four-game sweep in the 2015 National League Championship Series and the Kansas
City Royals defeating the Toronto Blue Jays in six games in the 2015 American League Championship
Series, the 2015 World Series became the first ever World Series matchup in which both teams
were expansion teams, where the Mets (whose first season occurred in 1962) faced off against
the Kansas City Royals (whose first season occurred in 1969), with the Royals winning
in five games. Until 2015, all World Series matchups featured
at least one of the 16 teams established by 1903. In the first World Series to only have expansion
teams, the New York Mets and the Kansas City Royals were each the first expansion team
in each respective league to appear in the World Series, the Mets in 1969 and the Royals
in 1980. Each team was also the first team in each
respective league to win the World Series, the Mets in 1969 and the Royals in 1985. Each team has the most appearance by an expansion
team in each respective league in the World Series, with five for the Mets in 1969, 1973,
1986, 2000, and 2015, and four for the Royals in 1980, 1985, 2014, and 2015. 12 expansion teams have now played in at least
one Series. As of the end of the 2017 edition, expansion
teams were 11–12 in the World Series, with four teams (the New York Mets, Kansas City
Royals, Toronto Blue Jays and Miami Marlins) each winning two. The then-Anaheim Angels, the Arizona Diamondbacks,
and the Houston Astros had each won one Series by the end of the 2017 season. The Toronto Blue Jays (1992 and 1993), Miami
Marlins (1997 and 2003 as the Florida Marlins), Arizona Diamondbacks (2001) and Los Angeles
Angels (2002 as the Anaheim Angels) have never lost a World Series appearance. Five expansion teams have appeared in the
World Series without ever winning a championship: twice for the Texas Rangers (formerly the
second Washington Senators) and San Diego Padres, and once each for the Milwaukee Brewers
(formerly Seattle Pilots), Colorado Rockies, and Tampa Bay Rays (formerly Devil Rays). Two expansion teams have not yet won a league
pennant (and therefore also have not appeared in a World Series): the American League’s
Seattle Mariners and the National League’s Washington Nationals (formerly Montreal Expos). Both teams have competed in postseason play
and appeared in their respective League Championship Series at least once, but have no League Championship
Series victories.====Other notes====
The team with the better regular season winning percentage has won the World Series 54 times,
or 48.65% (54 of 111) of the time. Three World Series have featured teams with
identical regular season records (1949, 1958, 2013). The Toronto Blue Jays are the only Canadian
team ever to win a pennant or a World Series, doing both twice, in 1992 and 1993. The Chicago Cubs and the Houston Astros are
the only teams with a World Series title that have never clinched one at home. Three series have matched up the previous
two World Champions, with the New York Yankees winning all three. The 1928 World Series was contested by the
1926 champion Cardinals and 1927 champion Yankees; the Yankees won the series 4–0. In 1943, the 1941 champion Yankees met the
1942 champion Cardinals, which the Yankees won 4–1. In the 1958 World Series, the 1956 champion
Yankees faced the 1957 champion Milwaukee Braves; the Yankees won this series 4–3. As the only two teams that have changed leagues,
both the Milwaukee Brewers and Houston Astros have played in the American League Championship
Series (ALCS) and National League Championship Series (NLCS). The Brewers won their lone ALCS appearance
in 1982 against the then-California Angels and lost both of their NLCS appearances in
2011 against the St. Louis Cardinals, and in 2018 against the Los Angeles Dodgers, making
them 1–2 all time between both League Championship Series. The Astros, meanwhile, have a 2–4 record
between both League Championship Series, having gone 1–3 in four NLCS appearances (lost
in 1980 to the Philadelphia Phillies, lost in 1986 to the New York Mets, lost in 2004
to the Cardinals, and won in 2005 versus the Cardinals) and 1-1 in their ALCS appearances
against the New York Yankees in 2017 and the Boston Red Sox in 2018 (a victory in seven
against the Yankees and a loss in five games against the Red Sox). With their victories in both the 2005 National
League Championship Series and the 2017 American League Championship Series, the Astros are
the only team in MLB to have represented both the National League and the American League
in the World Series. The 2015 World Series game 1 between the New
York Mets and the Kansas City Royals was the longest game 1 in history at 5 hours and 9
minutes. Yogi Berra of the New York Yankees holds the
record for most World Series championships by a player with 10. Joe DiMaggio of the Yankees is second with
9. Joe McCarthy and Casey Stengel are tied for
the most World Series titles by a manager with 7 apiece, all 14 of them with the Yankees. Connie Mack managed the Philadelphia Athletics
to 5 World Series crowns. The all-time World Series single-game attendance
record is 92,706, set in Game 5 of the 1959 World Series at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum,
the temporary home of the Los Angeles Dodgers until Dodger Stadium opened in 1962. The Chicago White Sox defeated the Dodgers
1–0 in the record-setting game. Games 3 and 4 of that series also drew crowds
in excess of 92,000. Game 3 of the 2018 World Series between the
Boston Red Sox and Los Angeles Dodgers was the longest single game in series history
at 7 hours and 20 minutes, which took longer than the entire 1939 World Series, with a
cumulative duration of 7 hours and 5 minutes. The American League Central division is the
only division in baseball where all the teams have won at least one World Series. In fact, all five teams have won the World
Series at least twice.==Television coverage and ratings==When the World Series was first broadcast
on television in 1947, it was only televised to a few surrounding areas via coaxial inter-connected
stations: New York City (WNBT); Philadelphia (WPTZ); Schenectady/Albany, New York (WRGB);
Washington, D.C. (WNBW) and surrounding suburbs/environs. In 1948, games in Boston were only seen in
the Northeast. Meanwhile, games in Cleveland were only seen
in the Midwest and Pittsburgh. The games were open to all channels with a
network affiliation. In all, the 1948 World Series was televised
to fans in seven Midwestern cities: Cleveland, Chicago, Detroit, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and
Toledo. By 1949, World Series games could now be seen
east of the Mississippi River. The games were open to all channels with a
network affiliation. By 1950, World Series games could be seen
in most of the country, but not all. 1951 marked the first time that the World
Series was televised coast to coast. Meanwhile, 1955 marked the first time that
the World Series was televised in color. ^ *: Not currently broadcasting Major League
Baseball.^ **: Per the current broadcast agreement, the World Series will be televised by Fox
through 2021.^ ***: Gillette, which sponsored World Series telecasts exclusively from roughly
1947 to 1965 (prior to 1966, the Series announcers were chosen by the Gillette Company along
with the Commissioner of Baseball and NBC), paid for airtime on DuMont’s owned-and-operated
Pittsburgh affiliate, WDTV (now KDKA-TV) to air the World Series. In the meantime, Gillette also bought airtime
on ABC, CBS, and NBC. More to the point, in some cities, the World
Series was broadcast on three stations at once.^ ****: NBC was originally scheduled
to televise the entire 1995 World Series; however, due to the cancellation of the 1994
Series (which had been slated for ABC, who last televised a World Series in 1989), coverage
ended up being split between the two networks. Game 5 is, to date, the last Major League
Baseball game to be telecast by ABC (had there been a Game 7, ABC would’ve televised it). This was the only World Series to be produced
under the “Baseball Network” umbrella (a revenue sharing joint venture between Major League
Baseball, ABC, and NBC). In July 1995, both networks announced that
they would be pulling out of what was supposed to be a six-year-long venture. NBC would next cover the 1997 (NBC’s first
entirely since 1988) and 1999 World Series over the course of a five-year-long contract,
in which Fox would cover the World Series in even numbered years (1996, 1998, and 2000).==Naming and international participation
==Despite its name, the World Series remains
solely the championship of the major-league baseball teams in the United States and Canada,
although MLB, its players, and North American media sometimes informally refer to World
Series winners as “world champions of baseball”. Some Americans, even those close to ‘world
champions’ themselves, question whether the title is justified. It is often considered “arrogant and ignorant”
by the rest of the world.The United States, Canada, and Mexico (Liga Méxicana de Béisbol,
established 1925) were the only professional baseball countries until a few decades into
the 20th century. The first Japanese professional baseball efforts
began in 1920. The current Japanese leagues date from the
late 1940s (after World War II). Various Latin American leagues also formed
around that time. By the 1990s, baseball was played at a highly
skilled level in many countries. Reaching North America’s high-salary major
leagues is the goal of many of the best players around the world, which gives a strong international
flavor to the Series. Many talented players from Latin America,
the Caribbean, the Pacific Rim, and elsewhere now play in the majors. One notable exception is Cuban citizens, because
of the political tensions between the US and Cuba since 1959 (yet a number of Cuba’s finest
ballplayers have still managed to defect to the United States over the past half-century
to play in the American professional leagues). Japanese professional players also have a
difficult time coming to the North American leagues. They become free agents only after nine years
playing service in the NPB, although their Japanese teams may at any time “post” them
for bids from MLB teams, which commonly happens at the player’s request. Several tournaments feature teams composed
only of players from one country, similar to national teams in other sports. The World Baseball Classic, sponsored by Major
League Baseball and sanctioned by the sport’s world governing body, the World Baseball Softball
Confederation (WBSC), uses a format similar to the FIFA World Cup to promote competition
between nations every four years. The WBSC has since added the Premier12, a
tournament also involving national teams; the first event was held in 2015, and is planned
to be held every four years (in the middle of the World Baseball Classic cycle). The World Baseball Classic is held in March
and the Premier12 is held in November, allowing both events to feature top-level players from
all nations. The predecessor to the WBSC as the sport’s
international governing body, the International Baseball Federation, also sponsored a Baseball
World Cup to crown a world champion. However, because the World Cup was held during
the Northern Hemisphere summer, during the playing season of almost all top-level leagues,
its teams did not feature the best talent from each nation. As a result, baseball fans paid little or
no attention to the World Cup and generally disregarded its results. The Caribbean Series features competition
among the league champions from Mexico, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela
but unlike the FIFA Club World Cup, there is no club competition that features champions
from all professional leagues across the world.==Image gallery====See also====
Notes

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